Academic Profiles

Research Interests

My research is in the field of adenosine and adenine nucleotides: their receptors, their effects and their physiological and pathological roles. They are important in platelet function, the control of the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems and in the brain. My research has been funded by The Wellcome Trust, The British Heart Foundation and  GlaxoSmithKline.

Teaching

I teach pharmacology to both undergraduate and postgraduate students, focussing mainly on the effects of drugs outside the central nervous system.

Departmental Duties

Director of FHMS Graduate School

Chair, Level 3 Biosciences Exam Board

Chair, MSc Toxicology Exam Board

Affiliations

Fellow of the British Pharmacological Society

Fellow of the Society of Biology

Member of the Biochemical Society

Contact Me

E-mail:
Phone: 01483 68 9707

Find me on campus
Room: 01 AY 02


My office hours

Normally 9-5.30, Monday-Friday

Publications

Journal articles

  • Zanos P, Georgiou P, Wright SR, Hourani SM, Kitchen I, Winsky-Sommerer R, Bailey A. (2013) 'The Oxytocin Analogue Carbetocin Prevents Emotional Impairment and Stress-Induced Reinstatement of Opioid-Seeking in Morphine-Abstinent Mice.'. Neuropsychopharmacology,
  • Metaxas A, Al-Hasani R, Farshim P, Tubby K, Berwick A, Ledent C, Hourani S, Kitchen I, Bailey A. (2013) 'Genetic deletion of the adenosine A2A receptor prevents nicotine-induced upregulation of α7, but not α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding in the brain.'. Neuropharmacology, 71, pp. 228-236.

    Abstract

    Considerable evidence indicates that adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) modulate cholinergic neurotransmission, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) function, and nicotine-induced behavioural effects. To explore the interaction between A2A and nAChRs, we examined if the complete genetic deletion of adenosine A2ARs in mice induces compensatory alterations in the binding of different nAChR subtypes, and whether the long-term effects of nicotine on nAChR regulation are altered in the absence of the A2AR gene. Quantitative autoradiography was used to measure cytisine-sensitive [(125)I]epibatidine and [(125)I]α-bungarotoxin binding to α4β2* and α7 nAChRs, respectively, in brain sections of drug-naïve (n = 6) or nicotine treated (n = 5-7), wild-type and adenosine A2AR knockout mice. Saline or nicotine (7.8 mg/kg/day; free-base weight) were administered to male CD1 mice via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps for a period of 14 days. Blood plasma levels of nicotine and cotinine were measured at the end of treatment. There were no compensatory developmental alterations in nAChR subtype distribution or density in drug-naïve A2AR knockout mice. In nicotine treated wild-type mice, both α4β2* and α7 nAChR binding sites were increased compared with saline treated controls. The genetic ablation of adenosine A2ARs prevented nicotine-induced upregulation of α7 nAChRs, without affecting α4β2* receptor upregulation. This selective effect was observed at plasma levels of nicotine that were within the range reported for smokers (10-50 ng ml(-1)). Our data highlight the involvement of adenosine A2ARs in the mechanisms of nicotine-induced α7 nAChR upregulation, and identify A2ARs as novel pharmacological targets for modulating the long-term effects of nicotine on α7 receptors.

  • Zanos P, Wright SR, Georgiou P, Yoo JH, Hourani SM, Kitchen I, Winsky-Sommerer R, Bailey A, Ledent C. (2013) 'Chronic methamphetamine treatment induces oxytocin receptor up-regulation in the amygdala and hypothalamus via an adenosine A receptor-independent mechanism'. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior,
  • Hussey MJ, Clarke GD, Ledent C, Kitchen I, Hourani SM. (2012) 'Deletion of the adenosine A(2A) receptor in mice enhances spinal cord neurochemical responses to an inflammatory nociceptive stimulus.'. Elsevier Neurosci Lett, 506 (2), pp. 198-202.

    Abstract

    Knockout mice lacking the adenosine A(2A) receptor are less sensitive to nociceptive stimuli, and this may be due to the presence of pronociceptive A(2A) receptors on sensory nerves. In support of this hypothesis, we have recently shown that in A(2A) receptor knockout mice there are marked reductions in the changes of two markers of spinal cord neuronal activity, [(3)H]MK801 binding to NMDA receptors and uptake of [(14)C]-2-deoxyglucose, in response to formalin injection. We now report that following a more prolonged inflammatory stimulus, consisting of intraplantar injections of PGE(2) and paw pressure, there was in contrast an increase in [(3)H]MK801 binding and [(14)C]-2-deoxyglucose uptake in the spinal cords of the A(2A) receptor knockout mice which was much greater than in the wild-type mice. This increase suggests that when there is a pronounced inflammatory component to the stimulus, loss of inhibitory A(2A) receptors on inflammatory cells outweighs the loss of pronociceptive A(2A) receptors on peripheral nerves so that overall there is an increase in nociceptive signalling. This implies that although A(2A) antagonists have antinociceptive effects they may have only limited use as analgesics in chronic inflammatory pain.

  • Wells L, Opacka-Juffry J, Fisher D, Ledent C, Hourani S, Kitchen I. (2011) 'In vivo dopaminergic and behavioural responses to acute cocaine are altered in adenosine A(2A) receptor knockout mice.'. Synapse, 66, pp. 382-390.
  • Al-Hasani R, Foster JD, Metaxas A, Ledent C, Hourani SM, Kitchen I, Chen Y. (2011) 'Increased desensitization of dopamine D(2) receptor-mediated response in the ventral tegmental area in the absence of adenosine A(2A) receptors.'. Elsevier Neuroscience, United States: 190, pp. 103-111.

    Abstract

    G-protein coupled receptors interact to provide additional regulatory mechanisms for neurotransmitter signaling. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are expressed at a high density in striatal neurons, where they closely interact with dopamine D(2) receptors and modulate effects of dopamine and responses to psychostimulants. A(2A) receptors are expressed at much lower densities in other forebrain neurons but play a more prominent yet opposing role to striatal receptors in response to psychostimulants in mice. It is, therefore, possible that A(2A) receptors expressed at low levels elsewhere in the brain may also regulate neurotransmitter systems and modulate neuronal functions. Dopamine D(2) receptors play an important role in autoinhibition of neuronal firing in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dopamine release in other brain areas. Here, we examined the effect of A(2A) receptor deletion on D(2) receptor-mediated inhibition of neuronal firing in dopamine neurons in the VTA. Spontaneous activity of dopamine neurons was recorded in midbrain slices, and concentration-dependent effects of the dopamine D(2) receptor agonist, quinpirole, was compared between wild-type and A(2A) knockout mice. The potency of quinpirole applied in single concentrations and the expression of D(2) receptors were not altered in the VTA of the knockout mice. However, quinpirole applied in stepwise escalating concentrations caused significantly reduced maximal inhibition in A(2A) knockout mice, indicating an enhanced agonist-induced desensitization of D(2) receptors in the absence of A(2A) receptors. The A(2A) receptor agonist, CGS21680, did not exert any effect on dopamine neuron firing or response to quinpirole, revealing a novel non-pharmacological interaction between adenosine A(2A) receptors and dopaminergic neurotransmission in midbrain dopamine neurons. Altered D(2) receptor desensitization may result in changes in dopamine neuron firing rate and pattern and dopamine release in other brain areas in response to persistent dopamine release and administration of psychostimulants.

  • Smith SR, Pochani N, Al-Hasani R, Hourani S, Wells L, Kitchen I, Bailey A. (2011) 'Metabotropic mGluR5-and adenosine A(2A)-receptor interactions in opioid addiction'. POLISH ACAD SCIENCES INST PHARMACOLOGY PHARMACOLOGICAL REPORTS, 63 (1), pp. 225-225.
  • Thakur S, Du J, Hourani S, Ledent C, Li J-M. (2010) 'Inactivation of Adenosine A(2A) Receptor Attenuates Basal and Angiotensin II-induced ROS Production by Nox2 in Endothelial Cells'. AMER SOC BIOCHEMISTRY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY INC JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, 285 (51), pp. 40104-40113.
  • Hussey MJ, Clarke GD, Ledent C, Kitchen I, Hourani SMO. (2010) 'Genetic deletion of the adenosine A(2A) receptor in mice reduces the changes in spinal cord NMDA receptor binding and glucose uptake caused by a nociceptive stimulus'. ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS, 479 (3), pp. 297-301.
  • Castane A, Wells L, Soria G, Hourani S, Ledent C, Kitchen I, Opacka-Juffry J, Maldonado R, Valverde O. (2008) 'Behavioural and biochemical responses to morphine associated with its motivational properties are altered in adenosine A(2A) receptor knockout mice'. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP BRIT J PHARMACOL, 155 (5), pp. 757-766.

    Abstract

    Background and purpose. Purinergic system through the A2A adenosine receptor regulates addiction induced by different drugs of abuse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the specific role of A2A adenosine receptors in behavioral and neurochemical morphine responses related to its addictive properties. Experimental approach. Mice lacking A2A adenosine receptors and wild type littermates were used to evaluate behavioral responses induced by morphine. Antinociception was assessed using the tail-immersion and the hot-plate tests. Place conditioning paradigms were used to evaluate the rewarding effects of morphine and the dysphoric responses of morphine withdrawal. Microdialysis studies were carried out to evaluate changes in the extracellular levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of A2A knockout mice after morphine administration. Key results. The acute administration of morphine induced a similar enhancement of locomotor activity and antinociceptive responses in both genotypes. However, the rewarding effects induced by morphine were completely blocked in A2A knockout mice. Besides, naloxone did not induce place aversion in animals lacking the A2A adenosine receptors. Conclusions and implications. Our findings demonstrate the relevant role played by A2A adenosine receptors in the addictive properties of morphine. Both, rewarding and aversive effects associated to abstinence were abolished in A2A knockout mice, supporting a differential role of the A2A adenosine receptor in somatic and motivational effects of morphine addiction. This study provides evidence about the role of A2A adenosine receptor as a general modulator of the addictive phenomenon.

  • Ribe D, Sawbridge D, Thakur S, Hussey M, Ledent C, Kitchen I, Hourani S, Li J-M. (2008) 'Adenosine A(2A) receptor signaling regulation of cardiac NADPH oxidase activity'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, 44 (7), pp. 1433-1442.
  • Hussey MJ, Clarke GD, Ledent C, Hourani SMO, Kitchen I. (2007) 'Reduced response to the formalin test and lowered spinal NMDA glutamate receptor binding in adenosine A(2A) receptor knockout mice'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV PAIN, 129 (3), pp. 287-294.
  • Godfrey L, Bailey I, Toms NJ, Clarke GD, Kitchen I, Hourani SMO. (2007) 'Paracetamol inhibits nitric oxide synthesis in murine spinal cord slices'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV EUR J PHARMACOL, 562 (1-2), pp. 68-71.

    Abstract

    Paracetamol is an effective analgesic but its mechanism of action is unclear. We investigated the effect of paracetamol and the analgesic adjuvant caffeine on the activity of NO synthase in mouse spinal cord and cerebellar slices in vitro, by measuring the conversion of [3H]arginine to [3H]citrulline. Paracetamol (100 μM) had no effect on NO synthase activity in cerebellum, but in the spinal cord both paracetamol (100 μM) and caffeine (30 μM) attenuated glutamate (5 mM)-induced [3H]citrulline production and in combination they abolished it. In conclusion paracetamol inhibits spinal cord NO synthesis and this may be related to its analgesic effects.

  • Godfrey L, Yan L, Clarke GD, Ledent C, Kitchen I, Hourani SMO. (2006) 'Modulation of paracetamol antinociception by caffeine and by selective adenosine A(2) receptor antagonists in mice'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV EUR J PHARMACOL, 531 (1-3), pp. 80-86.

    Abstract

    This study investigated the involvement of adenosine receptors in the interaction between paracetamol and caffeine in mice, using the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist 5-amino-7-(2-phenylethyl)-2-(2-furyl)pyrazolo[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine (SCH58261) and the adenosine A2B receptor antagonist 1-propyl-8-p-sulfophenylxanthine (PSB1115), in the tail immersion and hot-plate tests. Paracetamol (10–200 mg/kg) was antinociceptive in both tests, but, in contrast to previous studies, caffeine (10 mg/kg) was pronociceptive in the tail immersion test, and reduced the effects of paracetamol in both tests. SCH58261 (3 mg/kg) was antinociceptive in both tests and in its presence paracetamol (50 mg/kg) had no further effect. PSB1115 (10 mg/kg) had little effect alone but potentiated the effect of paracetamol (50 mg/kg) in the hot-plate test and abolished it in the tail immersion test. These results suggest that adenosine A2B receptors may be involved in the action of paracetamol in a pathway-dependent manner, and also support the existence of pronociceptive adenosine A2A receptors

  • Lamb DJ, Tickner ML, Hourani SMO, Ferns GAA. (2005) 'Dietary copper supplements modulate aortic superoxide dismutase, nitric oxide and atherosclerosis'. BLACKWELL PUBLISHING INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PATHOLOGY, 86 (4), pp. 247-255.
  • Godfrey L, Morselli A, Bennion P, Clarke GD, Hourani SMO, Kitchen I. (2005) 'An investigation of binding sites for paracetamol in the mouse brain and spinal cord'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 508 (1-3), pp. 99-106.
  • Kelly M, Bailey A, Ledent C, Kitchen I, Hourani S. (2004) 'Characterization of [H-3]ZM 241385 binding in wild-type and adenosine A(2A) receptor knockout mice'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 504 (1-2), pp. 55-59.
  • Bailey A, Weber D, Zimmer A, Zimmer AM, Hourani SMO, Kitchen I. (2004) 'Quantitative autoradiography of adenosine receptors and NBTI-sensitive adenosine transporters in the brains of mice deficient in the preproenkephalin gene'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV BRAIN RESEARCH, 1025 (1-2), pp. 1-9.
  • Bailey A, Ledent C, Kelly MDW, Kitchen I, Hourani SMO. (2004) 'Interactions between opioid receptors and the adenosine system'. WILEY-BLACKWELL FUNDAMENTAL & CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, 18, pp. 15-15.
  • Bailey A, Davis L, Lesscher HMB, Kelly MDW, Ledent C, Hourani SMO, Kitchen I. (2004) 'Enhanced morphine withdrawal and mu-opioid receptor G-protein coupling in A(2A) adenosine receptor knockout ti ice'. BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, 88 (4), pp. 827-834.
  • Hourani SM. (2004) 'Pharmacological approaches to studying platelet function: an overview.'. Methods Mol Biol, United States: 273, pp. 73-86.
  • Lamb DJ, Tickner ML, Dreux AC, El-Sankary W, Hourani SMO, Eales-Reynolds LJ, Ferns GAA. (2004) 'Impairment of vascular function following BCG immunisation is associated with immune responses to HSP-60 in the cholesterol-fed rabbit'. ELSEVIER SCI IRELAND LTD ATHEROSCLEROSIS, 172 (1), pp. 13-20.
  • Bailey A, Hawkins RM, Hourani SMO, Kitchen I. (2003) 'Quantitative autoradiography of adenosine receptors in brains of chronic naltrexone-treated mice'. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 139 (6), pp. 1187-1195.
  • Bailey A, Ledent C, Kelly M, Hourani SMO, Kitchen I. (2002) 'Changes in spinal delta and kappa opioid systems in mice deficient in the A(2A) receptor gene'. SOC NEUROSCIENCE JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, 22 (21), pp. 9210-9220.
  • Geeson J, Larsson K, Hourani SM, Toms NJ. (2002) 'Sodium nitroprusside-induced rat fundus relaxation is ryanodine-sensitive and involves L-type Ca2+ channel and small conductance Ca(2+)-sensitive K+ channel components.'. Auton Autacoid Pharmacol, England: 22 (5-6), pp. 297-301.
  • Nicholls J, Hourani SM, Hall JM. (2002) 'Characterization of adenosine receptors mediating the vasodilator effects of adenosine receptor agonists in the microvasculature of the hamster cheek pouch in vivo.'. Auton Autacoid Pharmacol, England: 22 (4), pp. 209-214.
  • Prentice DJ, Kelly MDW, Ledent C, Hourani SMO. (2002) 'Relaxation of the mouse isolated aorta and carotid artery in response to adenosine analogues in genetically-modified mice lacking the adenosine A(2A) receptor'. SPRINGER-VERLAG NAUNYN-SCHMIEDEBERGS ARCHIVES OF PHARMACOLOGY, 366 (2), pp. 127-133.
  • Bailey A, Mathes H, Kieffer B, Slowe S, Hourani SMO, Kitchen I. (2002) 'Quantitative autoradiography of adenosine receptors and NBTI-sensitive adenosine transporters in the brains and spinal cords of mice deficient in the mu-opioid receptor gene'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV BRAIN RESEARCH, 943 (1) Article number PII S0006-8993(02)02536-2 , pp. 68-79.
  • Prentice DJ, Kelly MDW, Ledent C, Hourani SMO. (2001) 'Effect of A(2A) adenosine receptor knockout on relaxant effects of adenosine and analogues in mouse isolated aorta.'. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 134
  • Hourani SMO, Mackins CJ, Kelly MDW, Ledent C, Prentice DJ. (2001) 'Effect of A(2A) adenosine receptor knock-out on inhibition by NECA and CGS21680 of KCl-induced contractions in murine vas deferens'. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 134
  • Hourani SMO, Boon K, Fooks HM, Prentice DJ. (2001) 'Role of cyclic nucleotides in vasodilations of the rat thoracic aorta induced by adenosine analogues'. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 133 (6), pp. 833-840.
  • Prentice D, Boon K, Hourani S. (2001) 'Relaxation of mouse isolated aorta to adenosine and its analogues does not involve adenosine A(1), A(2) or A(3) receptors'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 415 (2-3), pp. 251-255.
  • Prentice DJ, Hourani SMO. (2000) 'Characterisation of adenosine receptors mediating relaxation in hamster isolated aorta'. SPRINGER-VERLAG NAUNYN-SCHMIEDEBERGS ARCHIVES OF PHARMACOLOGY, 362 (4-5), pp. 427-434.
  • Cusack NJ, Hourani SMO. (2000) 'Platelet P2 receptors: from curiosity to clinical targets'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV JOURNAL OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM, 81 (1-3), pp. 37-43.
  • Tennant JP, Hourani SMO. (2000) 'Breakdown of extracellular ATP by the prostatic and epididymal ends of the guinea pig vas deferens'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 387 (1), pp. 107-109.
  • Tennant JP, Callaghan F, Turner C, Hourani SMO. (1999) 'Effects of allopurinol, erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine and S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine on the degradation of adenosine 5 '-triphosphate in the rat colon muscularis mucosae'. BLACKWELL SCIENCE LTD JOURNAL OF AUTONOMIC PHARMACOLOGY, 19 (4), pp. 229-232.
  • Park HS, Hourani SMO. (1999) 'Differential effects of adenine nucleotide analogues on shape change and aggregation induced by adenosine 5 '-diphospbate (ADP) in human platelets'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 127 (6), pp. 1359-1366.
  • Tennant JP, Pearson A, Hourani SMO. (1999) 'Effects of noradrenaline, the calcium ionophore A23 187, forskolin, sodium nitroprusside and glibenclamide on the degradation of extracellular adenosine 5 '-triphosphate by the rat isolated vas deferens'. BLACKWELL SCIENCE LTD JOURNAL OF AUTONOMIC PHARMACOLOGY, 19 (3), pp. 167-171.
  • Nicholls J, Hourani SMO, Hall JM. (1999) 'Characterisation of receptors mediating vasomotor effects of adenosine analogues in hamster cheek pouch'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 126, pp. U103-U103.
  • Prentice DJ, Hourani SMO. (1999) 'Characterisation of adenosine receptors mediating relaxation in hamster isolated aorta'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 126, pp. U104-U104.
  • Park HS, Hourani SMO. (1999) 'Different effects of adenine nucleotide analogues on the responses mediated by adenosine 5 ' diphosphate (ADP) receptors on human platelets'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 126, pp. U103-U103.
  • Peachey JA, Hourani SMO, Kitchen I. (1999) 'Ontogeny of adenosine receptors in the longitudinal muscle and muscularis mucosae of the rat distal colon'. SPRINGER VERLAG NAUNYN-SCHMIEDEBERGS ARCHIVES OF PHARMACOLOGY, 359 (2), pp. 140-146.
  • Hourani SMO. (1999) 'Postnatal development of purinoceptors in rat visceral smooth muscle preparations'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY, 32 (1), pp. 3-7.
  • Park HS, Tennant JP, Waktolla GF, Sarkardei S, Kass GEN, Hourani SMO. (1998) 'Effects of adenosine 3 '-phosphate 5 '-phosphosulfate on P2 receptors in platelets and smooth muscle preparations'. WILEY-LISS DRUG DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH, 45 (2), pp. 67-73.
  • Hourani SMO, Bailey SJ, Johnson CR, Tennant JP. (1998) 'Effects of adenosine 5 '-triphosphate, uridine 5 '-triphosphate, adenosine 5 '-tetraphosphate and diadenosine polyphosphates in guinea-pig taenia caeci and rat colon muscularis mucosae'. SPRINGER VERLAG NAUNYN-SCHMIEDEBERGS ARCHIVES OF PHARMACOLOGY, 358 (4), pp. 464-473.
  • Boarder MR, Hourani SMO. (1998) 'The regulation of vascular function by P2 receptors: multiple sites and multiple receptors'. ELSEVIER SCI LTD TRENDS IN PHARMACOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 19 (3), pp. 99-107.
  • Prentice DJ, Payne SL, Hourani SMO. (1997) 'Activation of two sites by adenosine receptor agonists to cause relaxation in rat isolated mesenteric artery'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 122 (7), pp. 1509-1515.
  • Nicholls J, Hourani SMO. (1997) 'Characterization of adenosine receptors on rat ileum, ileal longitudinal muscle and muscularis mucosae'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 338 (2), pp. 143-150.
  • Tennant JP, Samuel EJ, Hourani SMO. (1997) 'Ectonucleotidase activity in the prostatic and epididymal portions of the guinea-pig vasdeferens'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 122, pp. P146-P146.
  • Nicholls J, Skene DJ, Hourani SMO. (1997) 'Use of a newly developed technique to isolate rat pinealocytes and study the effects of adenosine agonists on melatonin production'. WILEY-BLACKWELL JOURNAL OF PINEAL RESEARCH, 23 (3), pp. 164-168.
  • Hourani SMO, Smith NC, Nettell JJ, Hall JM. (1997) 'Relaxation of the ovine isolated iris sphincter by adenosine receptor agonists: Lack of effect of adenosine A(1) and A(2) receptor antagonists'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 334 (1), pp. 95-98.
  • Lewis CD, Hourani SMO. (1997) 'Involvement of functional antagonism in the effects of adenosine antagonists and L-NAME in the rat isolated heart'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY, 29 (3), pp. 421-427.
  • Brownhill VR, Hourani SMO, Kitchen I. (1997) 'Ontogeny of P2-purinoceptors in the longitudinal muscle and muscularis mucosae of the rat isolated duodenum'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 122 (2), pp. 225-232.
  • Prentice DJ, Hourani SMO. (1997) 'Adenosine analogues relax guinea-pig taenia caeci via an adenosine A(2B) receptor and a xanthine-resistant site'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 323 (1), pp. 103-106.
  • Brownhill VR, Hourani SMO, Kitchen I. (1996) 'Differential ontogeny of adenosine receptors in the longitudinal muscle and muscularis mucosae of the rat isolated duodenum'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 317 (2-3), pp. 321-328.
  • Hourani SMO. (1996) 'Purinoceptors and platelet aggregation'. BLACKWELL SCIENCE LTD JOURNAL OF AUTONOMIC PHARMACOLOGY, FREIBURG, GERMANY: 16 (6), pp. 349-352.
  • Peachey JA, Hourani SMO, Kitchen I. (1996) 'Differential development of adenosine A(1) and A(2b) receptors in the rat duodenum'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 119 (5), pp. 949-958.
  • Prentice DJ, Hourani SMO. (1996) 'Activation of multiple sites by adenosine analogues in the rat isolated aorta'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 118 (6), pp. 1509-1517.
  • Brownhill VR, Hourani SMO, Kitchen I. (1996) 'Differential distribution of adenosine A(2) receptors in the epididymal and prostatic portions of the rat vas deferens'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 303 (1-2), pp. 87-90.
  • Hourani SMO, Welford LA, Cusack NJ. (1996) 'Effects of 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-beta,gamma-methylenetriphosphonate and 2-ethyithioadenosine 5'-monophosphate on human platelet activation induced by adenosine 5'-diphosphate'. WILEY-LISS DRUG DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH, 38 (1), pp. 12-23.
  • Brownhill VR, Hourani SMO, Kitchen I. (1996) 'Selective enhancement by an adenosine A(1) receptor agonist of agents inducing contraction of the rat vas deferens'. SPRINGER VERLAG NAUNYN-SCHMIEDEBERGS ARCHIVES OF PHARMACOLOGY, 353 (5), pp. 499-504.
  • Johnson CR, Charlton SJ, Hourani SMO. (1996) 'Responses of the longitudinal muscle and the muscularis mucosae of the rat duodenum to adenine and uracil nucleotides'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 117 (5), pp. 823-830.
  • Peachey JA, Brownhill VR, Hourani SMO, Kitchen I. (1996) 'The ontogenetic profiles of the pre- and postjunctional adenosine receptors in the rat vas deferens'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 117 (6), pp. 1105-1110.
  • Hourani SMO, Hall DA, Chadwick DJ, Goode JA. (1996) 'P2T purinoceptors: ADP receptors on platelets'. JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD P2 PURINOCEPTORS: LOCALIZATION, FUNCTION AND TRANSDUCTION MECHANISMS, CIBA FDN, LONDON, ENGLAND: 198, pp. 53-70.
  • Nicholls J, Brownhill VR, Hourani SMO. (1996) 'Characterization of P-1-purinoceptors on rat isolated duodenum longitudinal muscle and muscularis mucosae'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 117 (1), pp. 170-174.
  • PEACHEY JA, BROWNHILL VR, HOURANI SMO, KITCHEN I. (1995) 'THE ONTOGENY OF ADENOSINE RECEPTOR SUBTYPES IN THE RAT VAS-DEFERENS'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 115, pp. P143-P143.
  • PRENTICE DJ, HOURANI SMO. (1995) 'NECA AND R-PIA ACTIVATE DISTINCT SITES TO CAUSE RELAXATION OF THE ISOLATED RAT AORTA'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 115, pp. P64-P64.
  • BAILEY SJ, HOURANI SMO. (1995) 'EFFECTS OF SURAMIN ON CONTRACTIONS OF THE GUINEA-PIG VAS-DEFERENS INDUCED BY ANALOGS OF ADENOSINE 5'-TRIPHOSPHATE'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 114 (6), pp. 1125-1132.
  • PEACHEY JA, HOURANI SMO, KITCHEN I. (1994) 'THE BINDING OF 1,3-[H-3]-DIPROPYL-8-CYCLOPENTYLXANTHINE TO ADENOSINE A(1) RECEPTORS IN RAT SMOOTH-MUSCLE PREPARATIONS'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 113 (4), pp. 1249-1256.
  • JOHNSON CR, HOURANI SMO. (1994) 'CONTRACTILE EFFECTS OF URIDINE 5'-TRIPHOSPHATE IN THE RAT DUODENUM'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 113 (4), pp. 1191-1196.
  • LEWIS CD, HOURANI SMO, LONG CJ, COLLIS MG. (1994) 'CHARACTERIZATION OF ADENOSINE RECEPTORS IN THE RAT ISOLATED AORTA'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY, 25 (7), pp. 1381-1387.
  • HALL DA, FROST V, HOURANI SMO. (1994) 'EFFECTS OF EXTRACELLULAR DIVALENT-CATIONS ON RESPONSES OF HUMAN BLOOD-PLATELETS TO ADENOSINE 5'-DIPHOSPHATE'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY, 48 (7), pp. 1319-1326.
  • BAILEY SJ, HOURANI SMO. (1994) 'DIFFERENTIAL-EFFECTS OF SURAMIN ON P-2-PURINOCEPTORS MEDIATING CONTRACTION OF THE GUINEA-PIG VAS-DEFERENS AND URINARY-BLADDER'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 112 (1), pp. 219-225.
  • HOURANI SMO, JONES DAD. (1994) 'POSTJUNCTIONAL EXCITATORY ADENOSINE A(1) RECEPTORS IN THE RAT VAS-DEFERENS'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY, 25 (3), pp. 417-420.
  • HOURANI SMO, HALL DA. (1994) 'RECEPTORS FOR ADP ON HUMAN BLOOD-PLATELETS'. ELSEVIER SCI LTD TRENDS IN PHARMACOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 15 (4), pp. 103-108.
  • HALL DA, HOURANI SMO. (1994) 'EFFECTS OF SURAMIN ON INCREASES IN CYTOSOLIC CALCIUM AND ON INHIBITION OF ADENYLATE-CYCLASE INDUCED BY ADENOSINE 5'-DIPHOSPHATE IN HUMAN PLATELETS'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY, 47 (6), pp. 1013-1018.
  • PEACHEY JA, HOURANI SMO, KITCHEN I. (1994) 'ADENOSINE-A(1) BINDING-SITES IN RAT SMOOTH-MUSCLE PREPARATIONS'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 111, pp. P323-P323.
  • COLLIS MG, HOURANI SMO. (1993) 'ADENOSINE RECEPTOR SUBTYPES'. ELSEVIER SCI LTD TRENDS IN PHARMACOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 14 (10), pp. 360-366.
  • HOURANI SMO, JOHNSON CR, BAILEY SJ. (1993) 'DESENSITIZATION OF THE P(2)-PURINOCEPTORS ON THE RAT COLON MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 110 (1), pp. 501-505.
  • HALL DA, HOURANI SMO. (1993) 'EFFECTS OF ANALOGS OF ADENINE-NUCLEOTIDES ON INCREASES IN INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM MEDIATED BY P2T-PURINOCEPTORS ON HUMAN BLOOD-PLATELETS'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 108 (3), pp. 728-733.
  • HOURANI SMO, NICHOLLS J, LEE BSS, HALFHIDE EJ, KITCHEN I. (1993) 'CHARACTERIZATION AND ONTOGENY OF P-1-PURINOCEPTORS ON RAT VAS-DEFERENS'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 108 (3), pp. 754-758.
  • BAILEY SJ, HOURANI SMO. (1992) 'EFFECTS OF PURINES ON THE LONGITUDINAL MUSCLE OF THE RAT COLON'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 105 (4), pp. 885-892.
  • NICHOLLS J, HOURANI SMO, KITCHEN I. (1992) 'CHARACTERIZATION OF P1-PURINOCEPTORS ON RAT DUODENUM AND URINARY-BLADDER'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 105 (3), pp. 639-642.
  • BAILEY SJ, HICKMAN D, HOURANI SMO. (1992) 'CHARACTERIZATION OF THE P(1)-PURINOCEPTORS MEDIATING CONTRACTION OF THE RAT COLON MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 105 (2), pp. 400-404.
  • HOURANI SMO, HALL DA, NIEMAN CJ. (1992) 'EFFECTS OF THE P(2)-PURINOCEPTOR ANTAGONIST, SURAMIN, ON HUMAN PLATELET-AGGREGATION INDUCED BY ADENOSINE 5'-DIPHOSPHATE'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 105 (2), pp. 453-457.
  • HOURANI SMO, BAILEY SJ, NICHOLLS J, KITCHEN I. (1991) 'DIRECT EFFECTS OF ADENYLYL 5'-(BETA,GAMMA-METHYLENE)DIPHOSPHONATE, A STABLE ATP ANALOG, ON RELAXANT P1-PURINOCEPTORS IN SMOOTH-MUSCLE'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 104 (3), pp. 685-690.
  • HOURANI SMO, CUSACK NJ. (1991) 'PHARMACOLOGICAL RECEPTORS ON BLOOD-PLATELETS'. WILLIAMS & WILKINS PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEWS, 43 (3), pp. 243-298.
  • NICHOLLS J, HOURANI SMO, KITCHEN I. (1990) 'THE ONTOGENY OF PURINOCEPTORS IN RAT URINARY-BLADDER AND DUODENUM'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 100 (4), pp. 874-878.
  • BAILEY SJ, HOURANI SMO. (1990) 'A STUDY OF THE PURINOCEPTORS MEDIATING CONTRACTION IN THE RAT COLON'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 100 (4), pp. 753-756.
  • HOURANI SMO, CHOWN JA. (1989) 'THE EFFECTS OF SOME POSSIBLE INHIBITORS OF ECTONUCLEOTIDASES ON THE BREAKDOWN AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ATP IN THE GUINEA-PIG URINARY-BLADDER'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY, 20 (4), pp. 413-416.
  • HOURANI SMO, WELFORD LA, LOIZOU GD, CUSAK NJ. (1988) 'ADENOSINE 5'-(2-FLUORODIPHOSPHATE) IS A SELECTIVE AGONIST AT P2-PURINOCEPTORS MEDIATING RELAXATION OF SMOOTH-MUSCLE'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 147 (1), pp. 131-136.
  • WELFORD LA, CUSACK NJ, HOURANI SMO. (1987) 'THE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY-RELATIONSHIPS OF ECTONUCLEOTIDASES AND OF EXCITATORY P2-PURINOCEPTORS - EVIDENCE THAT DEPHOSPHORYLATION OF ATP ANALOGS REDUCES PHARMACOLOGICAL POTENCY'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 141 (1), pp. 123-130.
  • CUSACK NJ, HOURANI SMO, LOIZOU GD, WELFORD LA. (1987) 'PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ISOPOLAR PHOSPHONATE ANALOGS OF ATP ON P-2-PURINOCEPTORS IN GUINEA-PIG TAENIA-COLI AND URINARY-BLADDER'. STOCKTON PRESS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 90 (4), pp. 791-795.
  • HOURANI SMO, LOIZOU GD, CUSACK NJ. (1986) 'PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF L-AMP-PCP ON ATP RECEPTORS IN SMOOTH-MUSCLE'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 131 (1), pp. 99-103.
  • WELFORD LA, CUSACK NJ, HOURANI SMO. (1986) 'ATP ANALOGS AND THE GUINEA-PIG TAENIA-COLI - A COMPARISON OF THE STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY-RELATIONSHIPS OF ECTONUCLEOTIDASES WITH THOSE OF THE P-2-PURINOCEPTOR'. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, 129 (3), pp. 217-224.

Conference papers

  • Thakur S, Hourani S, Li JM. (2009) 'REGULATION OF ANGIOTENSIN II-INDUCED ROS PRODUCTION AND REDOX-SIGNALLING BY THE ADENOSINE A2A RECEPTOR IN ENDOTHELIAL CELLS'. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS HYPERTENSION, Nice, FRANCE: 14th Annual Meeting of the European-Council-for-Cardiovascular-Research 54 (5), pp. 1165-1165.
  • Ferre S, Diamond I, Goldberg SR, Yao L, Hourani SMO, Huang ZL, Urade Y, Kitchen I. (2007) 'Adenosine A(2A) receptors in ventral striatum, hypothalamus and nociceptive circuitry - Implications for drug addiction, sleep and pain'. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD PROGRESS IN NEUROBIOLOGY, Boston, MA: International Research Conference on Targeting Adenosine A2A Receptons in Parkinson's Disease and other CNS Disorders 83 (5), pp. 332-347.
  • Godfrey L, Hourani SMO, Kitchen I. (2003) 'Quantitative autoradiography of [H-3]paracetamol binding in the mouse brain'. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, UNIV SURREY, GUILDFORD, ENGLAND: Meeting of the British-Pharmacological-Society 140
  • Bailey A, Lesscher HMB, Kelly MDW, Davis L, Ledent C, Hourani SMO, Kitchen I. (2003) 'Morphine withdrawal in A(2A) adenosine receptor knockout mice'. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, UNIV SURREY, GUILDFORD, ENGLAND: Meeting of the British-Pharmacological-Society 140
  • Tickner ML, Lamb DJ, Dreux AC, El-Sankary W, Hourani S, Eales-Reynolds LJ, Ferns GAA. (2003) 'BCG immunisation impairs vascular relaxation and enhances atherosclerosis in the chronically hypercholesterolaemic rabbit'. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, UNIV SURREY, GUILDFORD, ENGLAND: Meeting of the British-Pharmacological-Society 140
  • Kelly MDW, Ledent C, Kitchen I, Hourani SMO. (2003) 'Characterization of [H-3]-ZM 241385 binding in wildtype and A(2A) knockout mouse brain'. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, UNIV SURREY, GUILDFORD, ENGLAND: Meeting of the British-Pharmacological-Society 140
  • Lamb D, Tickner M, Dreux A, El-Sankary W, Hourani S, Eales-Reynolds LJ, Ferns G. (2003) 'BCG immunization is atherogenic in the chronically hypercholesterolaemic rabbit: Immune and vascular endothelial effects'. ELSEVIER SCI IRELAND LTD ATHEROSCLEROSIS SUPPLEMENTS, KYOTO, JAPAN: 13th International Symposium on Atherosclerosis 4 (2), pp. 310-310.
  • Bailey A, Ledent C, Kelly MDW, Kitchen I, Hourani SMO. (2002) 'Changes in opioid systems in A(2A) receptor knockout mice'. WILEY-LISS DRUG DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH, GOLD COAST, AUSTRALIA: 7th International Symposium on Adenosine and Adenine Nucleotides 56 (4), pp. 562-562.
  • Lamb D, Tickner M, El-Sankary W, Hourani S, Reynolds LJ, Ferns G, Kostner GM, Kostner KM. (2002) 'Immunisation with bacillus Calmette-Guerin enhances aortic atherosclerosis in chronic low level hypercholesterolaemic rabbits'. MEDIMOND S R L ATHEROSCLEROSIS: RISK FACTORS, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT, SALZBURG, AUSTRIA: 73rd Annual Congress of the European-Atherosclerosis-Society, pp. 463-466.
  • Hourani SMO. (2001) 'Discovery and recognition of purine receptor subtypes on platelets'. WILEY-LISS DRUG DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH, MADRID, SPAIN: PURINES 2000 Meeting 52 (1-2), pp. 140-149.
  • Prentice DJ, Hourani SMO, Trist DG, Humphrey PPA, Leff P, Shankley NP. (1997) 'Information in agonist curve shape for receptor classification'. NEW YORK ACAD SCIENCES RECEPTOR CLASSIFICATION, VERONA, ITALY: Conference on Receptor Classification - the Integration of Operational, Structural, and Transductional Information 812, pp. 234-235.
  • HOURANI SMO, BAILEY SJ, NICHOLLS J, KITCHEN I. (1991) 'AMPPCP ACTS VIA P1-RECEPTORS AND NOT P2-RECEPTORS IN SOME ISOLATED SMOOTH-MUSCLE PREPARATIONS'. MARCEL DEKKER INC NUCLEOSIDES & NUCLEOTIDES, NOORDWIJK, NETHERLANDS: SATELLITE SYMP TO THE 11TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF PHARMACOLOGY - PHARMACOLOGY OF PURINERGIC RECEPTORS : IMPLICATIONS FOR DRUG DESIGN 10 (5), pp. 1203-1205.
  • CUSACK NJ, HOURANI SMO. (1991) 'DESIGN, SYNTHESES AND PHARMACOLOGY OF ATP ANALOGS SELECTIVE FOR SUBTYPES OF P2-PURINOCEPTORS'. MARCEL DEKKER INC NUCLEOSIDES & NUCLEOTIDES, NOORDWIJK, NETHERLANDS: SATELLITE SYMP TO THE 11TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF PHARMACOLOGY - PHARMACOLOGY OF PURINERGIC RECEPTORS : IMPLICATIONS FOR DRUG DESIGN 10 (5), pp. 1019-1028.

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